Global Energy Summit - 2020 | France Global Energy Summit - 2020 | France


Session 1: Renewable energy
The energy which was collected from renewable resources such sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat is called renewable energy. It attracted a plenty of within the recent past due to exhaustion of fossil fuels and looking for the alternative energy for neat, clean and green future. According to Renewable energy policy network for the 21st century the renewables contributed 19.4% for the human’s global energy consumption and 24.5% of the electricity generation in 2012 and 2013. They are eco- friendly, reliable property and cost effective. At national level more than 20 nations are contributing renewable energy mare than 21% of power supply. More than 25 solar projects are quite equal to 8000MW and 9 wind arrivals are quite equal to 4000MW and are approved on public lands within some of the cities of US and that’s enough to power four million homes. Renewable energy sources that derive energy from natural amities such as sun either directly or indirectly like hydro and wind are expected to be capable of supplying humanity energy for more than 1 billion years. Renewable energy is projected to be equal to coal and natural gas electricity generation. Denmark, Germany, the state of South Australia and some cities of US already achieved high integration of variable renewables. National renewable markets have aimed to grow strongly in coming decade and beyond and some countries have set various policy targets for long term share of renewable energy, including a target of 20 percent electricity generated for European Union by 2020.
Session 2: Green Nanotechnology
To reduce potential environmental and human health risks which are associated with the production and usage of nanotechnology products, they are usually referred to applied science to strengthen the environmental property of processes producing negative externalities. Green nanotechnology has set two goals one is to produce Nanomaterial's and products without harming the environment or human life and to produce Nano-products for solving environmental problems. They develop the products that benefit to environment either directly or indirectly, they also cleans the hazardous waste sites, desalinate water and environmental pollutants. It also uses the existing principles of green engineering and green chemistry for making of Nano materials and Nano products. They are non- toxic, pattern less at low temperatures and renewable inputs. Light weight Nano composites are used in automobiles for production to reduce materials and used in transportation for saving fuel consumption. The nanotech sensors are used to detect metal ions or radioactive metals which are harmful for the human life leading to lung cancer, heart conditions and neuron diseases. Hence they can detect them and they require less energy for this. The other way of green manufacturing process is using alternative energies. This made possible through green nanotechnology.
Session 3: Biomass and Bioenergy
Biomass is the energy getting from burning wood and other organic matter. It is a material derived from living or recently living organisms. They mostly refer to plants and plant materials which are called lingo cellulosic biomass. Biomass can be used as energy source either directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly converting it into the various forms of biofuels. Thermal, chemical and Bio chemical are the methods of converting biomass to biofuel. Some chemical constituents of plant biomass include cellulose and hemicellulose. The estimated biomass production is 104.9 pentagrams of carbon per year, about half from ocean and half from land. Biomass includes animal or plant matter can be converted into other industrial chemicals including biofuels and fibres. Plant energy produced by crops is specifically grown for using as a fuel that gives high biomass output per hectare. The electricity produced by biomass varies region to region.
Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources through material medium. The sunlight is stored in the form of chemical energy. Even though wood is still our largest biomass energy resource, the other sources which can be utilized are residues from agriculture or forestry and the organic compound of municipal and industrial wastes. Biomass can be converted to other forms of energy such as methane gas or transportation fuels like biodiesel and ethanol. The other form of bioenergy can be attained from microbial fuel cells. The cell converts chemical energy that is being stored in waste water or soil to electrical energy via the metabolic processes of electro-genic micro-organisms. Bioelectricity is the production of electric potentials and currents by living organisms or within living organisms. The global market for biogas production equipment is estimated nearly $4.6 billion for 2013. The market was set to research $7 billion by 2018 growing at a compound annual growth rate of 9.45% over the five year period from 2013-2018.
Session 4: Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineering involves application of science and engineering practices to how we can use and impact our natural resources. It works on solutions to problems like pollution reduction, energy consumption, energy emission, water treatment, land erosion and waste management. On January 1, 1970 the practice of environmental assessment was initiated by United States. Since that time more than 100 developing and developed nations either they have planned specific laws or adopted procedure. The wide spread application of pesticides DDT given agricultural benefits and yielding of crops was increased gradually reducing hunger and malaria was controlled better than it ever had been. More engineers are taking specialized training in law and are utilizing their technical experience in the practices of environmental engineering law.
Session 5: Sustainable Energy
An energy system that serves the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation for meeting their energy needs is known as Sustainable Energy. The twin pillars of the sustainable energy are energy efficiency and renewable energy. This energy is replenish-able within human life time causing no damage to the environment. Sustainable energy does not add any amount of carbon-di-oxide to atmosphere. Sustainable energy will require changes in energy supplied and energy used. Most of the agricultural techniques-developed are modified as a result of rural electrification. Scientific production of sustainable energy systems is growing from above 500 English journal papers only about renewable energy in 1992 to almost 8500 above papers in 2011. This energy is being transported to high demand areas such as urban cities and highly inefficient areas. Hydroelectricity energy, wind energy, solar energy, wave power, tidal power, bioenergy and geothermal energy are the technologies that promote sustainable energy.
Session 6: Biofuel
From biological processes such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion extracted fuel is known as biofuel. It can be produced from geological processes such those involved in formation of fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal. They can also be derived from plants i.e. energy crops and they can be derived indirectly industrial, agricultural, domestic and commercial wastes. Thermal conversion, chemical conversion and biochemical conversion are the three different ways to convert biomass into energy. Conventional biofuels are grown from food crops, food crops are thus grown for fuel production. The total road transport fuel in UK is 1,440 million litres. 93 billion litres of biofuels created worldwide in 2009. Two most common types of biofuels used are plant product and biodiesel are derived from gift plants, alcohol and oil that act as perfect substitute for fuel. Research is going on for finding biofuel crops. Usage of current yields in progress, vast amount of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil completely replacing fossil fuels.
Session 7: Green chemistry
Green chemistry is also known as sustainable chemistry. It is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering which focuses on the designing of products and the use, generation of hazardous substances. In 1990’s green chemistry emerged a variety of existing ideas and research efforts. The development of green chemistry in European countries and US are increased for environmental problem strategies. Green chemistry is essential for developing the alternatives for energy generation. Green chemistry overlaps with all disciplines of chemistry but with a particular focus on chemical synthesis, process chemistry and chemical engineering in applications of industries. Green chemistry is seen as a powerful weapon that researchers must evaluate the impact of nanotechnology. Atomic economy, prevention, less hazardous chemical synthesis, design of safer chemicals, design for energy efficiency, use of renewable feed, catalysis are some of the principles of the Green chemistry.
Session 8: Green Economy
An economy which aims at decreasing the environmental risks and ecological balances and also aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment is known as Green Economy. The theory of this green economics is an economy is considered to be a component of the ecosystem. Green Economy is closely connected with ecological political economy. It also contains a lot of political applied focus. Green Economy requires green energy generation for replacing fossil fuels and conservation of energy as well as efficient use of energy. Coming to ecological measurements, in 2010-2016 green economic performance in 80 countries and 50 cities focused four main dimensions of leadership & climatic change, markets and investment, efficient sectors and finally environment. A low carbon economy in addition referred to low fossil fuel economy. They contain a negligible output of a green gas emission which effects climatic change and human activity more.
Session 9: Climate change
The change in the weather conditions and the time variation of the weather within the context of long term average conditions is climatic change. Climatic change is referred to global warming, they are caused due to some factors like biotic processes, volcanic eruptions and certain human activities. The variation in the solar radiation received by the earth is identified as the primary causes of climatic change. According to recent research from New York Times column the renewable energy investments set back efforts to address climate change, renewable technologies can save customers money as they displace emissions from fossil fuels. Both wind and solar energy had an incredible growth and huge cost improvements over the past decade. The advancement of earth orbiting satellites and technologies made scientists to see big picture and collecting many data and information about earth and its climate on global scale. Our surface temperature records are available from the mid-late 19th century. Parameters range is the physical evidence to observe climatic change. In recent past the climatic change is detected by corresponding changes in the settlement and agricultural patterns. The climatic change resulted to rise and also downfall of various civilizations.
Session 10: Energy conservation
Energy conversation is the process of reducing demand on supply and enabling that supply to begin to rebuild itself. The best way of doing this is to replace the energy used with an alternative. Energy conservation technique is to reduce demand and replenish supplies. They have to protect, develop and use alternative energy sources and clean up the damage from energy processes. Energy conservation also reduces the need of energy services and result in improvement and increased environmental quality, national security, higher savings and personal finance security. It also lowers the energy costs. By reducing wastage and losses, improving efficiency through upgraded techniques and improved operation and maintenance energy can be conserved. Carbon taxes are employed by some countries to motivate energy users to reduce their consumption. Tiered energy tax is employed by state of California where every user can get baseline energy allowance that carries a low tax. These programmes are created to set and protect poorer households by creating a high tax burden for the customers who uses high energy consumption. Airtight thermal insulated construction is the most prominent factor determining the home efficiency in both warm and cold climate conditions. To minimize the flow of heat to and fro the home insulation is added but it may be labour-intensive to fit to an existing home. Asian governments have implemented a range of subsides such as grants, cheap credit, tax exemptions and co- financing with public sector funds to encourage energy efficiency across several sectors. At the end of 2006 European Union has taken a pledge to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020.
Session 11: Waste-to-energy
The process of generating energy in the form of heat and electricity from primary treatment of waste or process of waste to a fuel source is known as waste-to-energy. Generation of electricity and heat is done directly through combustion or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, ethanol or synthesis fuel. Development technologies foe processing residual solid waste has only become a focus attention in recent years stimulated by the search for more efficient energy recovery. Incineration is the main method of the energy recovery. Other new emerging technologies are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. These technologies have a great potential to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel but this is possible through direct combustion itself. The reason behind this is separation of corrosive components from the converted fuel by allowing higher combustion temperatures i.e. gas turbines, boilers, fuel cells. Gasification, Thermal depolymerisation, Pyrolysis and Plasma arc gasification are some thermal techniques.
Session 12: Energy Recycling
Recycling is the practise of recovering used materials from the waste stream and then incorporating those same materials into manufacturing process. Successful recycling also depends on manufactures making products from recovered materials and in turn consumers purchasing products made of recyclable materials. It is the energy recovery process of utilizing energy that would normally be wasted, and converting it into electricity and thermal energy. Energy recycling increases efficiency and decreases energy costs and greenhouse gas pollution. This is to mitigate global warming profit. Waste heat recovery, waste recovery from air conditioning, combined heat and power are some of the forms of energy recycling. The technology for solution to improvement of energy efficiency for stationary power generation industry is electro turbo compounding ETC. Recycling is directly connected to renewable energy as it helps in sustaining the natural resource of the earth. By 2025 waste batteries removed from electric vehicles will total 95gig watt hour worth. Many initiatives are under way to prepare for arrival of this new type of waste. But most in the cases, the solutions are work in progress at best. A 2007 department of energy study found the potential for 135,000 megawatts of CHP in US and a LBNL study identified about 64000 megawatts that could be obtained from industrial waste energy. Wide spread use of energy recycling could therefore reduce global warming emissions by 20%. As of 2005, about 42% of US greenhouse gas pollution came from production of electricity and 27% from production of heat.
Session 13: Bioremediation
The process of treating contaminated media, including water, subsurface material and soil, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade target pollutants is called bioremediation. It is less expensive and more sustainable in many cases. Another similar approach is biological treatment which is used to treat wastes including waste water, solid waste and industrial waste. This technique involves the use of organisms to induce eliminate or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site. Technologies are going to be sometimes classified as situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating contaminated material to be treated at a point location, whereas ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. However, not all contaminants unit of measurement merely treated by bioremediation using microorganisms. Phytoremediation is useful in these circumstances as results of natural plants which are able to bio-accumulate these toxins in their above-ground parts. Most of the processes involve oxidation-reduction reactions that means a chemical species donate an electron to different species that accepts electron. Electron donors include sugars, fats, alcohols, natural organic material, fuel hydrocarbons and organic pollutants.
Session 14: Smart grid
An electric grid which includes a number of operational and energy measures including smart appliances, smart meters, renewable energy resources and energy efficient resources is known as smart grid. The important aspects of the smart grid are electronic power conditioning, control of the production and electricity distributions are important aspects of the smart grid. In 1886 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts the first alternating current power grid system was installed. In the 20th century local grids grew and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. The topology of 1960’s grid was a result of the strong economies of scale. In 21st century opportunities to take advantage of improvement in electronic communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become prominent. Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally. Over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for more robust energy that is less dependent on centralized power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets.
Session 15: Green Engineering
The design of products and processes by applying financially feasible products and processes in a manner that gradually decreases the amount of pollution that is generated by a source is called Green engineering. It approaches the minimization of exposure to potential hazards and protecting human health without damaging the economic efficiency and viability. Green energy approaches design from a systematic perspective which means that number of professional disciplines must be integrated. Green engineering includes land use planning, architecture, social sciences and design fields. The system approach employed in green engineering is similar to value engineering. Efficiency is an engineering and thermodynamic term for ratio of an input to an output of energy and mass within a system.
Session 16: Green Energy
Green Energy principally involves natural energetic processes which are able to be controlling with a little or no pollution. Anaerobic digestion, geothermal power, wind power, small-scale hydropower, alternative energy, biomass power, recurrent event power, wave power, and many sorts of nuclear power constitutes to the green energy. Some definitions may be power derived from the combustion of waste. In several countries with enterprise arrangements, electricity selling arrangements build it attainable for patrons shop for green electricity from their utility of a green power provider. Once energy is being purchased from the electricity network, the power that reaches the customer will not primarily be generated from green energy sources. The native utility or state power pool purchases their electricity from electricity producers. World Health Organization might be generating from fuel, nuclear or renewable energy sources. Green energy customers either obligates the utility firms to increase the number of inexperienced energy that they purchase from the or directly fund the green energy through a green power provider.
Session 17: Environmental Toxicology
Environmental toxicology is that branch of science which is concerned with the adverse effects of physical, chemical and biological agents on living organisms. There are different sources of environmental pollutant and some of which are: Heavy metals, pesticides, PCB and DDT.

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